A recent study from Vanderbilt University found that what children with autism hear is often out of sync with what they see. Dr. Mark Wallace, who lead the study, describes it as, “a badly dubbed video.”
By comparing 32 high-functioning children with autism to 32 typically developing children, matched by age, sex, and IQ, researchers found that the children with autism had an enlargement in their temporal binding window (TBW). Simply put, their brains had trouble linking visual and auditory events that happened within a certain period of time.
“Children with autism have difficulty processing simultaneous input from audio and visual channels. That is, they have trouble integrating simultaneous information from their eyes and their ears,” said co-author Stephen Camarata, Ph.D., professor of Hearing and Speech Sciences. “It is like they are watching a foreign movie that was badly dubbed, the auditory and visual signals do not match in their brains.”
The second part of the study found that the autistic children also showed weakness in how strongly they associated audiovisual speech stimuli. Dr. Wallace believes this explains why autistic children often cover their ears or eyes. “We believe that one reason for this may be that they are trying to compensate for their changes in sensory function by simply looking at one sense at a time. This may be a strategy to minimize the confusion between the senses.”
Building on the findings of this study, researchers are now in the testing phase of an interactive video game that they designed to retrain autistic brains in how they link different sensory input. As Dr. Wallace describes, “It basically takes the tuning of the nervous system and shapes it, so that they get better.”