If you were to put a group of children together, the differences in their personalities would be obvious- the extroverted kids would lead the game, the shyer would hang back, friends would form bonds and take on a partnership role, and the rest filling the various dynamics of the group.
It is the same as children affected with Autism Spectrum Disorder- if they were to fill a room, their personalities shine and their unique differences would be immediately seen.
Although it has been commonly accepted that no two people with ASD are the same, the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, (Canada) recently conducted a study which looked at the genetic makeup of siblings affected with autism and their respective parent’s. They found that a significant (69.4%) amount of these siblings’ DNA code had varying aspects of ASD, making them as “unique as snowflakes”.
This means that siblings who both have the same autism diagnosis can have a different coding scenario, in turn showing a greater variation in their expression of the disorder. This helps to explain how a family with two children with the same diagnosis of autism can show significant differences in their behavior, as any other family can attest.
In the above mentioned article, Valerie South’s two sons (Thomas and Cameron) were both diagnosed with a type of low-functioning autism, which leads to difficulties in learning development. And like most brothers, they have their own expressions of self, different from one another.
In the study, their entire DNA sets were assessed, and it was found that, although they had the same diagnosis, the expression of the ASD-related genes were largely differentiating. The study had 170 participants with ASD, and looked at all genetic variations that were relevant to the disorder (both their genetic makeup and the outward expression of the gene). It also looked at the structural variation of the genes associated with the spectrum.
With almost 70% of the siblings showing significant genetic variation in relevant genes, this scientifically backed hypothesis confirms the anecdotal knowledge parents with children of ASD have known for years; the variability between siblings is as significant as any brothers or sisters without the disorder, and ultimately, no two cases of autism are ever the same.
This innovative study brings to light how Autism Spectrum Disorder is viewed, studied, and treated. The concept that no expression of this development disorder can be considered thesame calls for complete tailoring of therapies, treatments, as well as how people are diagnosed.
The image of this disorder as a spectrum has now been reinforced with the information from this new study, and it is time to open the discussion on how these individuals should be cared for, and how we talk about autism.
Written by Sydney Chasty